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US Resolutions concerning the Macedonia name dispute between Greece and FYROM

On July 19, 2011 in the House of Representatives, Ms. ROS-LEHTINEN, member of the U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs, introduced a bill acknowledging the efforts of Greece as 'having demonstrated an enormous good will gesture' in conceding to a new official name for the FYROM including a geographical qualifier, whereas the FYROM has continued to violate the provisions of the United Nations-brokered Interim Agreement between itself and Greece through 'incendiary rallies, rhetoric, or propaganda'. The bill, cited as the "Foreign Relation Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2012" under "SEC. 807. (H.R. 2583) LIMITATION ON ASSISTANCE TO THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA," proposes a restriction in U.S. foreign aid to the FYROM.

Full text at 112th CONGRESS 1st SESSION (pages 52-54).



On June 4, 2009, Mr. MENENDEZ (for himself, Ms. SNOWE, Mrs. SHAHEEN, and Ms. MIKULSKI) submitted to the Senate of the United States a resolution concerning the Macedonia name dispute between Greece and FYROM.

Full text at The Library of Congress, S. RES. 169.



On May 21, 2009, Mrs. Maloney (for herself, Mr. Bilirakis, Ms. Berkley, Mr. Space, Ms. Ros-Lehtinen, Ms. Tsongas, Mr. Brown of South Carolina, Mr. Sarbanes, Mr. Kennedy, Mr. Van Hollen, Mr. Carnahan, Mr. Lincoln Diaz-Balart of Florida, Mr. Pallone, Ms. Lee of California, Mr. Sires, Ms. Titus, Mr. Poe of Texas, Mr. McMahon, and Mr. Jackson of Illinois) submitted to theHouse of Representatives of the United States a resolution concerning theMacedonia name dispute between Greece and FYROM.

Full text at The Library of Congress, H. RES. 486.



On August 3, 2007, Mr. MENENDEZ (for himself, Ms. SNOWE, and Mr.OBAMA) submitted to the Senate of the United States a resolution concerning the Macedonia name dispute between Greece and FYROM.

Full text at The Library of Congress, S. RES. 300.

Alexander the Great: How Greek was he?

This is the title of an article by Professor Paul Cartledge, Cambridge University. This article was posted at American Chronicle on November 09, 2008.


In this article Prof. Paul Cartledge refers to the peculiarities of the ancient Greek dialect Macedonians spoke, the Greek origin and values of Alexander the Great, and the cultural differences between ancient Macedonians and Greeks.  These cultural and linguistic differences were exploited for political reasons in ancient and present times, as in the case of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, a new nation-state that is trying to strengthen its identity by appropriating founding-father type heroes like Alexander the Great.

Discussing Alexander.

Forbes has been posting a series of informed and informative conversations about Alexander the Great between Paul Cartledge (A.G. Leventis Professor of  Greek Culture at Cambridge University, author of Alexander the Great, editor of Responses to Oliver Stone's Alexander) and James Romm(Professor of Classics at Bard College, editor of Alexander the Great: Selections from Arrian, Diodorus, Plutarch, and Quintus Curtius and of The Landmark Arrian: The Campaigns of Alexander).  These conversations are directed toward a general audience but are of interest to the specialist as well.

The first of these can be found at:

Heracles to Alexander the Great

Treasures from the Royal Capital of Macedon, a Hellenic Kingdom in the age of Democracy.


An extraordinary exhibition of ancient artifacts from Vergina in Macedonia will be on display at the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford University from April 7 to August 29, 2011 (  Although it is no substitute for seeing the actual exhibit, there are two BBC videos that give one a taste of what has been loaned by Greece, including much material that is new even to archaeologists (other than the excavators themselves).


The first report (“Greek treasures on display at Oxford’s Ashmolean Museum: shows masses of nails from a coffin, a gold wreath, weapons, etc.  In the background for a part of the piece is the painting of the Rape of Persephone from Tomb I at Vergina.  When you visit the exhibition, be sure to look closely for the incised guide lines that the unknown painter used as the preliminary sketch for this ancient masterpiece.


The second report (“Macedonians created cement three centuries before the Romans: is a little misleading because cement has been attested already two centuries even earlier in Greece, and because the narration gives the impression that the modern passageway to the tumulus is the ancient “cement” building.  But the artifacts are extremely important, especially the ceramics shown first in the hand of Christopher Brown at the 1:36 point in the video, and again more clearly at the 2:00-2:05 point.  The gold and silver material from Vergina dazzles, but is also so rare that we cannot compare it to other similar artifacts.  The pottery, however, is more humble and more typical of everyday life and is, therefore, more important in showing that it, like everything else from Macedonia, was typically Greek.  One recognizes, for example, pottery made in Corinth and in Athens from the 6th and 5th centuries B.C.


Finally, the review by Robin Lane Fox in the “Financial Times” ( is yet another way to get a glimmer of the importance of this exhibition.


Although archaeologists who have done their homework in the last 30 years will not be surprised by the Greekness of the physical remains from ancient Macedonia as seen in the Ashmolean, the general public needs to have this firsthand experience.  It is an education. If its language was Greek, if its Gods were Greek, if its pots and pans were Greek, it should be understood that ancient Macedonia was Greek.


Alexander the Great and the Opening of the World

Opening Up The World * Asia's Cultures in Transition
Presented by The Reiss-Engelhorn Museums of Mannheim
Mannheim, Germany
October 3, 2009 to February 21, 2010

The exhibit follows the path of the Macedon King all the way to Central Asia and brings to life the cultural, economic, and social changes that were radically triggered in his passing. It shows how Alexander's campaign gave impetus to the process of Hellenization and the spreading of Greek culture. The exhibit is a collaboration of renowned museums from Europe and Central Asia. Many items on display will be presented to the public for the very first time.

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